Electrical Power Systems by Ashfaq Hussain Reading Notes

  • Chapter 1: Load Characteristics
    • Advantages of Electrical Energy
      1. can be generated at large quantities
      2. can be conveniently transmitted over long distances
      3. utilized efficiently
      4. maximum flexibility
    • PS Loads:
      • Industrial
      • Commercial
      • Residential
    • Demand:
      • Instantaneous
      • Sustained
        • India – >30 min
    • Cost of plant and equipment increases with Maximum Demand
    • Demand Factor = Max Demand / Total Connected Load
    • Load Factor = Average Load / Peak load
      • Max Demand = Peak Load
    • Diversity Factor = (sum of individual MDs) / (coincident MD of the whole system)
    • Load Diversity = “ – “
    • Utilization Factor = Max Demand / Rated System Capacity
    • Plant Factor = Actual Energy Produced or Supplied in time / (Max Plant Rating x T)
      • Rated capacity of each plant is always greater than maximum demand.
    • Capacity Factor = (Peak Load x Load Factor) / Plant Capacity = Average Load / Plant Capacity
    • Loss Factor = Average Power Loss / Power Loss at Peak Load
    • Utility of Load Curves:
      • To decide the installed capacity of a power station
      • To choose the most economical sizes of various generating units
      • To estimate the generating cost
      • To decide the operating schedule of the power station
    • Load Curve and Load Duration Curve
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